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Inspiration

New Short Film ‘Dot Of Light’ Showcases Stories of Female Astronauts

6 May, 2017

A fantastic new short film, Dot of Light, highlights the stories of three astronauts from very different backgrounds, Dr. Kathryn D. Sullivan, Nicole Stott, and Anousheh Ansari, narrating their journey to space. Intimate interviews and archival footage of their flights bring their pioneering stories to life in this film by Eliza McNitt, produced in collaboration with Google.

Anousheh Ansari in 'Dot of Light' (Still from 'Dot of Light')

Anousheh Ansari in ‘Dot of Light’ (Still from ‘Dot of Light’)`

These lines that we’ve drawn on a map that separates this country from that country, you don’t see that from space, there are no walls separating us. Everything is connected. It is one home. It is one planet. It is one single unit that we live on. Around us is this dark universe. There’s nothing else around that looks anything close to our planet. –  Anousheh Ansari, first female spaceflight participant (first Iranian astronaut).

Watch this powerful film above and here.

Inspiration

Confidence Is The Missing Key Factor

5 May, 2017
#BeBoldForChange was the theme to this year's International Women's Day. This great infographic by Trade Machines FI GmbH introduces the difficulties women have to face when deciding to enter the highly male-dominated field of engineering - an explanation for why only 13% of US engineers are female. (Copyright Trade Machines FI GmbH)

#BeBoldForChange was the theme to this year’s International Women’s Day. This great infographic by Trade Machines FI GmbH introduces the difficulties women have to face when deciding to enter the highly male-dominated field of engineering – an explanation for why only 13% of US engineers are female. (Copyright Trade Machines FI GmbH)

We may be aware of the fact that women are under-represented in STEM fields, but seeing the exact numbers of female representation is still startling: on average women comprise 19% of STEM students and 20% of engineering students in the United States. Other tech-related fields attract even fewer women. Women within electrical engineering fields represent solely 12% of the students while within computer sciences only 10%.

When it comes to engineering, not only are fewer women choosing these study fields than men, but it turns out, that even after finishing college 35% of women either choose to not enter the field or leave eventually, while this number is 10% for men. So what could be the reason behind this worldwide trend?

The American Sociological Association released a study (pdf) with the title ‘Women Aren’t Becoming Engineers Because of Confidence Issues’. The study pointed towards the lack of ‘professional role confidence’ as an issue for female engineering students. This eludes to female students not having as much confidence in their engineering competence as their male counterparts and doubting the fact that engineering is the career that fits them best.

But it’s worth looking at what could lead to such a lack of confidence. Why are women more affected by this than men?

As the study and the following infographic explains, there are several components to this complicated issue. The main reason might be, that a stereotype threat is still present according to which engineering is still assumed to be a male career. As the study said, “competence in engineering is associated in people’s minds with men and masculinity more than it is with women and femininity”.

While there is no quick-fix solution to this issue, there are actions we can take to support young women. In order to not lose those who are currently studying or who are already working in STEM (also known as the leaky pipeline syndrome), we need to make work environments more accepting and eliminate any residual “macho culture”.

It is also important that role models, successful women in STEM careers are visible and tangible to younger women considering their future career paths. It can be an excellent way for younger women to realize that engineering is just as much for women as it is for men.

We can additionally encourage girls to consider a STEM career in an even earlier phase of their life. According to Reshma Saujani, the founder of Girls Who Code, we need to start by raising girls differently. While boys are taught to be “brave”, women are often told to be “good” and therefore women ‘seek perfection and avoid taking risks’ with this potentially leading to missing out on great opportunities.

Female under-representation in engineering is clearly not because of a lack of capability but, as the study eludes to, because of girls not believing in themselves. In the words of Canadian-Indian poet Rupi Kaur, “What’s the greatest lesson a woman should learn? That since day one she’s already had everything she needs within herself. It’s the world that convinced her that she did not.” Not only do we need to change this in order to encourage girls to see themselves as engineers in the future, but also in order to ensure the next generation are more confident and believe in their potential. We need women supporting other women. How can you help a girl that you know to reach their potential?

(Disclaimer: This post was written in association with Trade Machines FI GmbH)

Inspiration

Illustrations To Inspire Girls In STEM

14 April, 2017

Remembering The Pioneers [Total Jobs]

Remembering The Pioneers [Total Jobs]

Recent reports have shown that there’s a massive skill requirement for engineering upcoming over the next few years with one in five schoolchildren having to become an engineer to fill that gap in the UK. Considering 15% of UK engineering graduates are female and only 9% of engineering professionals, we can start to fill this gap today by encouraging more girls to pursue STEM, ensuring that they make up 50% of engineering talent in the future.

One of my favourite quotes is by Sally Ride, the first American woman in space: “You can’t be what you can’t see.” It’s in this vein that these brilliant new motion illustrations were created by Total Jobs and the co-founder of STEMettes, Jacquelyn Guderley, each depicting the STEM journey and challenges young girls endure. Each illustration, backed by the British Science Association, is supported by inspirational advice, helping to dispel the stereotypes and gender boundaries that exist today.

Opening Doors

Opening Doors [Total Jobs]

Opening Doors [Total Jobs]

You can be what you can see. STEM is inclusive and doors need to be opened to a career in STEM for everyone.

Looking Beyond The Labels

Looking Beyond The Labels [Total Jobs]

Looking Beyond The Labels [Total Jobs]

Be more than the labels placed upon you by society. Be more than what people think you will ‘only’ amount to and push yourself to be what you want to be. Be an awesome coder like Felicity Smoak from CW‘s Arrow, or an astrophysicist like the woman who came into your school and showed you that you can be more than your labels.

Jobs For The Girls

Jobs For The Girls [Total Jobs]

Jobs For The Girls [Total Jobs]

I’m British Asian and my background is Indian, so although my parents were supportive of my interest in space and science, there was some pressure to study a traditional subject for a girl – become a dentist, doctor or a teacher, as it was a “safe” choice and an acceptable job for a girl in Indian culture. Even in society as a whole jobs in technology or science are still seen widely as “for boys”. Girls need to be encouraged to choose STEM careers and when they do, girls often outperform boys in STEM subjects!

Smashing The Sterotypes

Smashing The Sterotypes [Total Jobs]

Smashing The Sterotypes [Total Jobs]

Self-belief can be changed in an instant. We need to stop so many 16-year-old girls walking away and abandoning STEM. One way to do this is for career advisers to encourage girls to pursue careers in STEM, an industry where you’re able to attract wages that are 20% higher than other industries! Stereotypes need to be broken down so that girls aren’t denied the opportunity to fulfill their potential.

Remembering The Pioneers [Total Jobs]

Remembering The Pioneers [Total Jobs]

The lack of female role models has a profound effect on girls choosing A-levels, says sociologist Louise Archer at King’s College London. “For girls in particular, physics is seen as being a very masculine subject,” she says. “So the girls who like physics have to work a lot harder to balance it with that notion of normal femininity.”

Finding Inspiration

Finding Inspiration [Total Jobs]

Finding Inspiration [Total Jobs]

Finding Inspiration [Total Jobs]
Finding Inspiration [Total Jobs]

You need those role models out there, tangible and visible, to be able to inspire the next generation of young girls to become astronauts, or be whatever they want to be.

Options For Girls

Options For Girls [Total Jobs]

Options For Girls [Total Jobs]

Girls deserve the same career opportunities as boys. In term of recruitment we still have big challenges in the world of STEM. You have to ask yourself the question, how many female role models can young people (especially girls) spontaneously quote, other than their direct family members, versus boys? By ensuring these female role models are tangible and visible, this can change.

Opportunity Knocks

Opportunity Knocks [Total Jobs]

Opportunity Knocks [Total Jobs]

I’ve learnt that representation matters and I hope that young women around the world will be inspired by the stories of successful women featured in these illustrations and on Rocket Women that look like them, to take the first step in their STEM story.

Read more about these illustrations supported by the British Science Association here.

Inspiration, STEM TV & Movies

Seat 25: A Story of Determination

8 January, 2017
Seat 25 - Faye Banks, played by Madeline Cooke, imagining a journey to Mars [Seat 25]

Seat 25 – Faye Banks, played by Madeleine Cooke, imagining a journey to Mars [Seat 25]

“This is the story of an ordinary woman. But like all ordinary people, she’s capable of doing something extraordinary. This is Faye.” – Seat 25

What would you do if you won a seat on a mission to Mars? Would you leave everything behind to follow a life-long dream?

Seat 25 is set five years after NASA has found liquid water on Mars, all contact has been lost to the planet due to changes in the Martian atmosphere. However, entrepreneur Michael Macmillan is ‘preparing the first manned mission to the Red Planet, with a seat reserved for an ordinary person willing to do something extraordinary’.

And that person is Faye. Faye, a British woman in red with a seemingly normal life, “a life Faye has weaved for herself, one tiny web lost among billions of tiny webs all covering a vast planet.” Faye was inspired by space when she was young, especially by the first British astronaut Helen Sharman. Her love for space seemed to have been sparked by a teacher’s comment at school, “What was so remarkable about Helen Sharman, not only was she the first Briton in space, she was also a woman. How many of you girls will leave such an impression?”

“Mars is breathtaking. One hundred years ago astronomers were looking up at the canals, convinced that intelligent life was living there. And here we are now, looking up at that same planet convinced that any time now it’ll be us up there.” – Faye Banks, Seat 25

Throughout the film Seat 25 we follow Faye’s journey as she learns of her chance to go to Mars and subsequent agonising decisions of whether to leave her carefully constructed life behind. Less than 30% of speaking film roles are given to women in Hollywood, making it no surprise that lead space and sci-fi characters are predominantly male. Seat 25, directed by Nicholas Agnew, provides a refreshing take on the space genre, depicting a relatable and inspiring female character finally realising her dreams and taking a chance.

Seat 25 - What Happens When You Win A One Way Trip To Mars? [Seat 25]

Seat 25 – What Happens When You Win A One Way Trip To Mars? [Seat 25]

Rocket Women had the fortune of speaking to Madeleine Cooke, who plays Faye Banks in Seat 25 along with co-producing and co-writing the film.

What inspired you to write SEAT 25?

Nicholas who co-wrote the screenplay and myself both wanted to make a film about space and in particular the exploration of other planets and worlds and this is something that really interests us as people. The basic story for SEAT 25, the idea that someone could win a ticket to Mars was inspired by Mars One and their competition to Mars. I read an article in a newspaper about someone who was now in the ‘Mars 100′ and was hoping to be eventually chosen and win the competition. It made me wonder about the type of person would be willing to leave earth forever and start a new life on Mars? What would be there reasons? How might winning affect them? We have also more recently been greatly inspired by SpaceX and their plans for Mars. Elon Musk in particular was big inspiration for the character of ‘Macmillan’ in SEAT 25 and is a bit of a personal hero.

It was also extremely important to me that the central character be a women as women in both film and science are so terribly under represented. I would love to think that SEAT 25 and the character of ‘Faye’ captured young women with ambition and encouraged them to dream big.

What were your aims behind the project?

The idea of ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances is something that really appeals to me as a screenwriter so it was very important to have a relatable person like ‘Faye’ as our central character. It was also extremely important to me that the central character be a women as women in both film and science are so terribly under represented. I would love to think that SEAT 25 and the character of ‘Faye’ captured young women with ambition and encouraged them to dream big.

I love the scene where Faye discovers her space toys and posters from when she was young. Were you interested in space or science when younger as your character Faye was?

You have found me out! Yes that part in particular had a lot of me in it and as a screenwriter I think you can’t help but put a lot of yourself in your characters to an extent. Certainly for me there is a lot of me in ‘Faye’. I have always been fascinated with space and as a little girl I dreamt about leaving earth and visiting other planets. The Apollo missions were also inspirations for SEAT 25 and greatly inspired me as a child.

You both co-wrote and co-produced Seat 25, impressively along with playing the lead role of Faye. How did you balance these during the film’s production?

I loved playing the character of ‘Faye’ and I was able to balance my other roles really due having an such a great team of people working with me and Nick on SEAT 25. There was only really 4 of us working on SEAT 25 but everyone was hard workers and were all very passionate about the project which was incredible.

The brilliant Seat 25 recently won awards for Best Feature Film and the Jury Prize at the Raw Science Film Festival in LA, the Best Feature Film at the Birmingham Film Festival and an award for the Best British Film at the London Film Awards in January 2017! Make sure you catch this movie at a film festival near you soon! (Seat 25 is due to open the Vault Film Festival on January 28th in London)

Inspiration, Media

Rocket Women Featured By Ladies Learning Code

10 November, 2016

We’re happy to announce that Rocket Women has recently been featured by the fantastic Ladies Learning Code, discussing The Power of Confidence!

“At Ladies Learning Code, we’re committed to closing the gender gap in technology by teaching women through beginner friendly programs that provide practical tech skills and arguably something even more important — confidence.

Whether it’s building something you wish existed, tackling a big project successfully, overcoming a personal obstacle or learning a new skill you never thought you could (like coding) –  we believe the confidence you gain from trying new things and problem solving is a critical component of ensuring women thrive.”

vm-llc

Vinita Marwaha Madill Representing Rocket Women – Discussing Her Biggest Challenge

“One of the biggest challenges was early on in my education where I didn’t have access to the information to know how to achieve my goals in the space industry and also the lack of role models that I saw working in STEM. It’s a large contributor to why girls decide to leave STEM by the age of 11.

As Sally Ride, the first American woman in space, said, “You can’t be what you can’t see.” My passion, and the goal of my website Rocket Women, is to try and reverse this trend by inspiring girls globally to consider a career in STEM.

During my career I’ve met some amazing people — especially other positive female role models. I think you need those role models out there, tangible and visible, to be able to inspire the next generation of young girls to become astronauts, or be whatever they want to be.

I started Rocket Women to give these women a voice and a platform to spread their advice. I’m interviewing women around the world in STEM, particularly in space, and posting the interviews on Rocket Women, along with advice to encourage girls to be involved in STEM.” – Vinita Marwaha Madill, Rocket Women

Read the original post here which also features advice from trailblazing women in STEM globally.

Education, Inspiration

Two New Scholarships Available For Women In STEM

26 October, 2016

brooke_zerog

Dawn Brooke Owens [Image Copyright: BrookeOwensFellowship.org]

Do you want to be the next Helen Sharman, Kate Rubins or Sally Ride? Then here are two new scholarships available you should consider!

Brooke Owens Fellowship Program

The Brooke Owens Fellowship Program was created to honour “the legacy of a beloved space industry pioneer and accomplished pilot, Dawn Brooke Owens (1980 – 2016), the Brooke Owens Fellowship Program is designed to serve both as an inspiration and as a career boost to capable young women who, like Brooke, aspire to explore our sky and stars, to shake up the aerospace industry, and to help their fellow men and women here on planet Earth.”

The fellowship offers paid internships at “leading aviation and space companies and organizations for passionate, exceptional women seeking their undergraduate degree”. The program is open to women carrying out undergraduate degrees in any field who intend to pursue a full-time career in the aviation or aerospace industry.

Applicants should submit a work sample relevant to their discipline in addition to a standard internship application. “This sample could take any of a wide variety of forms: a video of a rocket motor test, recording of an original song or poem, a white paper on a matter of aerospace policy, or whatever else you think best captures your personality and your ambitions.”

The deadline for applications is 5th December, 2016.

Nancy Grace Roman, the 'Mother of the Hubble Space Telescope' [philosophyofscienceportal.blogspot]

Nancy Grace Roman, the ‘Mother of the Hubble Space Telescope’ [Image Copyright: philosophyofscienceportal.blogspot.com]

NASA Nancy Grace Roman Technology Fellowships in Astrophysics for Early Career Researchers

Otherwise known as the Roman Technology Fellowship, this NASA program provides early career researchers with the opportunity to develop the skills necessary to “lead astrophysics flight instrumentation development projects and become principal investigators (PIs) of future astrophysics missions; to develop innovative technologies that have the potential to enable major scientific breakthroughs; and to foster new talent by putting early-career instrument builders on a trajectory towards long-term positions.” The NASA fellowship is named to honour Nancy Grace Roman, who was the first person to hold the title of NASA “Chief Astronomer”, a position she held for 20 years until her retirement in 1979. During this time she helped design the Hubble Space Telescope, earning her the unofficial title of “Mother of the Hubble”. NASA’s three other astrophysics fellowships are named after Edwin Hubble, Albert Einstein, and Carl Sagan.

Read more about NASA’s Roman Technology Fellowship and apply here. Good luck!

Inspiration, Media

Rocket Women Celebrates World Space Week

10 October, 2016

Rocket Women Is Celebrating World Space Week With Little Green Radicals [Little Green Radicals]

Rocket Women Is Celebrating World Space Week Partnered With Little Green Radicals [Little Green Radicals]

We’re excited to announce that Rocket Women has partnered with Little Green Radicals to celebrate World Space Week 2016 (4-10th October), a global event supported by the United Nations! Little Green Radicals are a London-based, organic and fair trade clothing company with a fantastic “rocket to the stars” line that we love! The line is mainly unisex, but there are also rocket dresses just for girls, promoting the idea that rockets are not just for boys, they’re for everyone!

“This season’s range is about dreams, and at Little Green Radicals we girls to dream without limits – you can be pilots, doctors, engineers, astrophysicists or astronauts, and this season we to encourage girls to explore their possibilities.  By creating a rocket to the stars dress, we hope to see far more girls growing up and reaching for the stars. As this week is World Space Week, and we have a very special guest blogger, Vinita Marwaha Madill, who has worked at the European Space Agency and NASA, as well as being an Operations Engineer for the International Space Station at the German Aerospace Centre. Her website Rocket Women is a platform for her advocacy for women in STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) and we ask her to talk to us about her journey to the stars…”

“Space has always intrigued me. I remember being an enthralled six-year-old when I learned that the first British astronaut, chemist Helen Sharman flew to the Mir space station in the early 90s. She was, although I didn’t know it yet, a role model to me. She showed me at a young age that my dreams were possible. I’m lucky to have had adults, both parents and great teachers, around me at that age who cultivated that interest and encouraged me to study space.”

Read more of Rocket Women’s guest blog for Little Green Radicals here.

Inspiration

Let’s Make This Inspirational Women Of NASA Lego Set A Reality

20 July, 2016

Inspirational Women Of NASA Lego Set [Lego Ideas]

Inspirational Women Of NASA Lego Set [Lego Ideas]

Katherine Johnson, Sally Ride, Margaret Hamilton, Nancy Grace Roman, Mae Jeminson. These five names of women at NASA, although unfamiliar to the public at present, will hopefully soon be immortalised and their trailblazing stories used to inspire the next generation. A fantastic LEGO “Women Of NASA” set featuring the two astronauts, Sally Ride and Mae Jeminson – the first American woman in space and the first African-American woman in space, and three scientists is ready to be voted for on the Lego Ideas website. If the set receives 10,000 supporters it will be one step closer to becoming a commercial set available in stores!

“Women have played critical roles throughout the history of the U.S. space program, a.k.a. NASA or the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Yet in many cases, their contributions are unknown or under-appreciated — especially as women have historically struggled to gain acceptance in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).

This proposed set celebrates five notable NASA pioneers and provides an educational building experience to help young ones and adults alike learn about the history of women in STEM.”

Read more about the Lego “Women of NASA” set here.

UPDATE: Lego has announced that the “Women of NASA” set is set to become a reality! The set featuring ‘Hidden Figures’ Katherine Johnson, Margaret Hamilton, Nancy Grace Roman alongside NASA astronauts Sally Ride and Mae Jeminson, has been approved to production and will be coming to a store near you soon! I’m excited for the conversations this set will bring, from the parents teaching their children about the stories of these inspirational women as they build the set to how the set will help to show that a career in space is for everyone.

Inspiration, Inspirational women

India’s Rocket Women: Meet The Women Of ISRO

9 April, 2016

India has built and launched 82 satellites into space and explored the Moon, Mars and the stars through it’s Chandrayaan-1, Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) and ASTROSAT respectively. But behind these missions is a strong team of scientists and engineers, including a team of trailblazing women.

The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) launch [ISRO]

The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) launch [ISRO]

Condé Nast Traveller recently featured the women working on the Mars Orbiter Mission (also called Mangalyaan). India’s MOM mission to Mars was astonishingly designed, planned and launched in 15 months with a budget of only US $70 million! Comparatively, NASA’s recent Maven mission to Mars cost $671 million.

Nandini Harinath served as deputy operations director on MOM and has worked on 14 missions over 20 years at ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation), India’s space agency. Nandini highlights that “Women constitute only 20% of ISRO’s 16,000-strong workforce, but female engineers are increasingly joining in. There’s greater awareness and education among young women now. Parents are being supportive of their daughters pursuing careers.” Nandini also discussed the problem of a number of highly educated women dropping out before they reach leadership positions. “That’s the mindset we need to change. Women have to realise that they can manage having careers and families. It’s possible! You can do it if you want to.””

“Women constitute only 20% of ISRO’s 16,000-strong workforce, but female engineers are increasingly joining in”

ISRO Scientist Nandini Harinath at ISRO’s Satellite Centre in Bengaluru

Here’s an excerpt from the Condé Nast Traveller’s fantastic feature:

“What does it take to make sure your little girl grows up to be a rocket scientist? Start her young. Some 30 years ago, Ritu Karidhal was a little girl, looking up at the stars twinkling in the Lucknow sky, and wondering why the moon changed its shape and size every night. In her teens, she began following the activities of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the newspapers, cutting and collecting clippings. Around the same time, Moumita Dutta was reading about India’s first lunar probe, Chandrayaan 1, in the Anandabazar Patrika in her hometown of Kolkata and thinking, ‘How lucky those people are to have the opportunity to be part of this!’ Flash forward to 2015, and both women are top ISRO scientists, part of a team that worked on India’s acclaimed Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), aka Mangalyaan.”

The feature highlights the little-known story and mission dedication of the women at ISRO, including the four hours of sleep they get per night in order to help their children study and supportive in-laws that travel for hours to help their families.

“We think of our satellites and payloads as our babies, too. To us, they have lives. So the rules for office and home are common: Patience, Procedures, Priorities. If you’re patient, that’s half the battle won. Don’t allow for single-point failure; have backup plans in your mind all the time to avoid chaos. And you can’t be everywhere at once; so assign your priorities. The mind and heart have to be in sync. You must always be true to yourself.”

Read the full Condé Nast Traveller feature here.

Update: Meet The Women Who Helped India Reach Mars On The First Try (within 18 months!)

Nandini Harinath, ISRO [Science Friday]

Nandini Harinath, ISRO [Science Friday]

“If you’re doing mission operations you don’t need to watch a science-fiction movie, we see the excitement in our day-to-day lives.” – Nandini Harinath, Project Manager Mission Design, Deputy Operations Director, Mars Orbiter Mission, ISRO

A wonderful new film from Science Friday tells the story of the Indian women in science of ISRO’s Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM).

The goal of the film is to show the scientists and work behind the mission, aiming to inspire the next generation of women scientists. With only around “40% of missions to Mars” having been successful, this mission is special as it was not only successful on the first try for ISRO but on a “shoestring budget and in a very short time”.

“When I was small I had a dream to help the common man.” – Minal Rohit, Scientist & Engineer, Project Manager, Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM), ISRO

Watch this fantastic film here.

Inspiration, Inspirational women

NASA’s Female Pioneers – Rocket Women From History You Should Know

31 March, 2016

katherine obama

[Copyright: WhiteHouse.gov. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls]

She’s played a role in every major US space program, from calculating the trajectory for Alan Shepard’s (First American in Space) inaugural flight to the Space Shuttle era. Her inspirational work for the U.S. space program since 1953 predates the creation of NASA. She calculated the trajectory for the 1969 Apollo 11 flight to the Moon in 1970, and Apollo 13’s mission to the Moon. When Apollo 13’s mission was aborted, she helped to safely return the crew to Earth four days later through her work on backup procedures and charts .

Her name is Katherine Johnson and it’s likely that you’ve never heard her name before. Until recently that is. 97-Year-Old Katherine Johnson became a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom in November 2015, the United States’ highest civilian honor, for a hugely influential career in mathematics. When NASA began to use electronic computers for the first time to calculate astronaut John Glenn’s orbit around Earth, she was relied upon to verify the computer’s calculations. And now, mathematical genius Katherine Johnson is about to be commemorated in a movie titled ‘Hidden Figures‘ and played by none other than “Empire” Star Taraji P. Henson.

Katherine Johnson along with her colleagues Dorothy Vaughn and Mary Jackson, served as the brains behind one of the greatest operations in U.S. history — the momentous launch of astronaut John Glenn into orbit, and his safe return. Glenn flew the Friendship 7 mission in 1962, becoming the first American to orbit the Earth. The job title of these women was ‘Computer’. The three women crossed all gender, race and professional lines while embarking on the mission.  ‘Hidden Figures’ is an adaptation of the Margot Lee Shetterly book “Hidden Figures: The Story of the African-American Women Who Helped Win the Space Race,”

I’m so glad that this movie is being made and will help to highlight the significant work that these women have achieved. But Katherine Johnson isn’t the only woman whose achievements have been unsung for over 40 years.

During Women’s History Month, other women who you need to know include:

Valerie Thomas

Valerie Thomas [NASA]

Valerie Thomas

In the 1940s, Valerie Thomas went to an all-girls school where math and science weren’t even taught. But she persevered and went on to study physics in college. Valerie took a job at NASA, project managing the Landsat program, which collected satellite images of Earth from space. She soon began conceptualizing the projection of 3D images in a similar way. Using a series of concave mirrors, Thomas invented and patented the 3D-Illusion transmitter, which produces 3D projections of objects – and NASA still uses her technology. It’s her technology that made your 3D TV and modern medical imaging possible.

Seamstresses nicknamed "'Little Old Ladies”, threading copper wires through magnetic rings. Apollo memory was literally hardwired!

Seamstresses nicknamed “‘Little Old Ladies”, threading copper wires through magnetic rings. Apollo memory was literally hardwired! Wire going through core=1.Wire going around=0 [Photo copyright: Jack Poundstone/Raytheon]

The Women That Stiched Apollo To The Moon

Raytheon’s expert seamstresses, nicknamed ‘Little Old Ladies’, threaded copper wires through magnetic rings (a wire going through a core was a 1; a wire going around the core was a 0). Unbelievably, software was woven into core rope memory by female workers in factories. Apollo memory was literally hardwired and almost indestructible.

Seamstress Hazel Fellows sewing the thermal micrometeoroid garment of the ILC A7L Apollo spacesuit( [Quartz/Copyright, ILC Dover]

Seamstress Hazel Fellows sewing the thermal micrometeoroid garment of the ILC A7L Apollo spacesuit [Quartz/Copyright: ILC Dover]

At ILC Dover, a team of expert seamstresses, on Singer sewing machines, designed and built the iconic suits worn by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the Moon in 1969, and essential to every Apollo mission. A total of 3 custom made suits were created for each astronaut, a training suit, a flight suit and a backup.

This is Margaret Hamilton, NASA lead software engineer, and this is the Apollo guidance program that she wrote.

This is Margaret Hamilton, NASA lead software engineer, and this is the Apollo guidance program that she wrote. [Copyright: NASA]

Margaret Hamilton

The code hardwired by a team of seamstresses that allowed the Apollo missions to fly, was created in part by Margaret Hamilton. Although not an astronaut, her contribution was critical to the success of Apollo, through the development the onboard guidance software for the Apollo mission as NASA’s lead software engineer. and through her role as Director of the Software Engineering Division at MIT’s Instrumentation Laboratory. Three minutes before the Apollo 11 lunar lander reached the Moon’s surface, her work prevented an abort as computer alarms triggered. Due to her design the computer overcame it’s overloading and took recovery action to rectify the issue, allowing the crew to land. “As a working mother in the 1960s, Margaret Hamilton was unusual; but as a spaceship programmer, Margaret Hamilton was positively radical. She would bring her daughter Lauren by the lab on weekends and evenings. While 4-year-old Lauren slept on the floor of the office overlooking the Charles River, her mother programmed away, creating routines that would ultimately be added to the Apollo’s command module computer. “People used to say to me, ‘How can you leave your daughter? How can you do this?’” Hamilton remembers. But she loved the arcane novelty of her job.” Margaret was also a vanguard in business and founded Hamilton Technologies Inc. in 1986, a groundbreaking software company, becoming CEO alongside coining the term “software engineering”.

Annie Easley [Engadget]

Annie Easley [Engadget. Photo Credit: NASA]

Annie Easley

During Annie Easley’s 34-year career, she worked not only on technologies at NASA that led to hybrid vehicles, but additionally to create software that enabled spaceflight and exploration. She was encouraged at a young age by her mother who told her that anything was possible, “You can be anything you want to. It doesn’t matter what you look like, what your size is, what your color is. You can be anything you want to, but you do have to work at it.” At NASA, then NACA, Annie was literally a human computer and later, as actual computers were used to conduct calculations, a math technician. She made a decision to carry out a degree in mathematics and attended classes full-time at Cleveland State University, in addition to working full-time at NACA. Male colleagues had their tuition paid for, however she had to pay for her courses herself, with her own money. NASA later sponsored additional specialized courses, but only after she had paid for her degree. Her work includes research in alternative energy, analysing solar and wind technologies, determining the life use of storage batteries and identifying energy-conversion systems – supporting the batteries used in hybrid vehicles today. Her software development skills were invaluable during the development of the Centaur rocket, the most powerful upper stage in the US space program. The rocket would be used to launch weather & communications satellites in addition to exploration spacecraft – Pioneer, Viking, Voyager and Cassini.

You can be anything you want to. It doesn’t matter what you look like, what your size is, what your color is. You can be anything you want to, but you do have to work at it.

The words of Dava Newman – NASA’s Deputy Administrator and a fellow trailblazer – regarding Katherine Johnson’s achievements ring true for each of these women, “We are fortunate that when faced with the adversity of racial and gender barriers, she found the courage to say tell them I’m coming.”